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Understanding Coronary Artery Disease


What is coronary artery disease?

Simply put, it describes a disease process where arteries of the heart become progressively narrowed, most commonly due to the presence of atherosclerosis. A very important outcome of coronary artery disease is a “Heart Attack” which occurs when these narrowed blood vessels become blocked enough to impede blood flow to the heart. Based on Malaysian statistics from 2014, heart attacks account for 20-25% of all deaths in public hospitals, a trend which has been consistent for the past 10 years.

The most common symptom of CAD is

If you do have symptoms  as described above, the best thing you can do, would be to go to the nearest hospital immediately. In the hospital, your doctor will perform an electrocardiogram (ECG) of the heart and will check your blood for clues that a heart attack is occurring. These blood tests are commonly known as “Cardiac Markers” and many consists of some, or all of the following

Together, these tests give your doctor confirmation of heart attack (or myocardial infarction) as well as the nature and severity of the condition. Prompt treatment can then be given to limit further damage to the heart. It is extremely important that these processes occur as rapidly as possible as time if of the essence (“TIME IS TISSUE”) in preventing further cardiac damage. 

These are broadly 2 categories of treatment;

The nature of the treatment to be given will depend upon the type of CAD as well as the overall medical condition of the patient. 

Controlling the causes of CAD are equally important. Your doctor will prescribe medications to treat conditions such as High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) and High Blood Glucose (Diabetes) if they are present. Patients will also be counseled to achieve a heart healthy weight as well as practice a healthy lifestyle. After being diagnosed with Coronary Artery Disease, it is essential that patients understand the importance of continuing to take their medications to ensure their heart remains healthy and to regularly follow up with their doctors. 


Article by, 



Dr. Ahmad Maujad B. Ali

Master of Internal Medicine (UKM)
Fellowship of Cardiology (Mal)


Internal Medicine & Cardiology

Full-Time Consultant

2nd Floor
Suite C-211
+606 - 315 8842
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